Scottish clergymen quickly objected to this use of anesthesia, insisting the pain of childbirth was ordained by God. Simpson countered by citing the biblical account of the deep sleep cast on Adam when God took the first man's rib and used it to make Eve. The argument continued until 1853, when Queen Victoria (ruler of England from 1837-1901) chose to be chlo-roformed for the birth of her son Prince Leopold (1853-1884). This event quieted the clergy and made chloroform the most fashionable anesthetic—especially in England—for the next 50 years.
Although chloroform did carry some risk of heart failure, it was more pleasant to take and more powerful than ether. Queen Victoria's anesthetist, Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), developed an inhaler to regulate the amount of chloroform administered to a patient so that he or she felt no pain but remained conscious.