Wednesday, June 30, 2010

joke


What doctors say, and what they're really thinking:



"This should be taken care of right away.”
i’d planned a trip to Hawaii next month but this is so easy and profitable that I want to fix it before it cures itself.


“Welllllll, what have we here…?”
He has no idea and is hoping you’ll give him a clue.


“Let me check your medical history.”
i want to see if you’ve paid your last bill before spending any more time with you.

“Why don’t we make another appointment later in the week.”
I’m playing golf this afternoon, and this a waste of time.
–or–
I need the bucks, so I’m charging you for another office visit.

Regenerating lung tissue !!!


In a breakthrough which could pave the way for regenerating human lungs, scientists claim to have successfully implanted laboratory-cultivated cells into a rat's lungs.


Lung tissue is difficult to regenerate as it does not generally repair or regenerate beyond the microscopic level. The only current way to replace damaged adult lung tissue is to perform lung transplantation, which is highly susceptible to organ rejection and infection.

Now, a team at Yale University successfully implanted tissue-engineered lungs, cultured in vitro, which could serve the lung's primary function of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide, the 'Science Express' reported.

The scientists took adult rat lungs and first removed their existing cellular components, preserving the extracellular matrix and hierarchical branching structures of the airways and vascular system to use later as scaffolds for the growth of new lung cells.
They then cultured a combination of lung-specific cells on the extracellular matrix, using a novel bioreactor designed to mimic some aspects of the fetal lung environment.

Under the fetal-like conditions of the bioreactor, the cells repopulated the decellularised matrix with functional lung cells. When implanted into rats for short intervals of time (45-120 minutes), the engineered lungs exchanged oxygen and carbon dioxide similarly to natural lungs.

Lead scientist Laura Niklason said: "We succeeded in engineering an implantable lung in our rat model that could efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide, and could oxygenate hemoglobin in the blood. This is an early step in the regeneration of entire lungs for larger animals and, eventually, for humans."

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Stefano Borgonovo !!!


Stefano Borgonovo (born 17 March 1964) is a former Italian footballer, who played as a striker. He is currently suffering from ALS.


Born in Giussano, Province of Monza and Brianza, Lombardy, Borgonovo began his professional career with Como Calcio, making his debuts at 17 in a Serie A match against Ascoli Calcio. After a loan spell at S.S. Sambenedettese Calcio, he established himself as a key player at Como, and in 1986 moved to A.C. Milan, who immediately loaned him back to Como.
After two years, Borgonovo was sent on loan again, this time to ACF Fiorentina, where had the most successful season of his career, scoring 14 league goals while playing alongside Roberto Baggio. This earned him three caps for Italy - his debut coming on 22 February 1989, in a friendly with Denmark (1–0 win) - and finally a chance to prove himself at Milan. He spent much of the 1989–90 season as backup to Marco van Basten and, despite earning a European Cup winners' medal, moved on, keen to play regular first-team football. Although then Milan coach Arrigo Sacchi was keen to keep his services, he returned to Fiorentina, where he spent two years without managing to recapture his previous form.
Spells at Pescara Calcio, Udinese and Brescia Calcio followed, before Borgonovo retired in 1996. He later served as a youth coach back at Como, but retired in 2005 due to poor health.

On 5 September 2008, it was revealed Borgonovo was suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the same illness that slowly killed Gianluca Signorini, another former Serie A player, in 2002.

It is a motor neurone disease that a surprising number of ex-footballers suffer from. The disease affects muscles, leading to a weakening in movement and, eventually, to complete paralysis. It also makes it difficult to breathe and talk.

Borgonovo cannot talk and has to use a computer-generated voice that tracks his eye movements in order to communicate. He vowed to fight this condition, saying, ''What if I became the first to cheat this?''Stadio Artemio Franchi, Florence in front of a crowd of 30,000 people, was attended by several former stars of the two clubs. Borgonovo himself attended the match despite his serious condition, with his former teammate Roberto Baggio at his side.The event tugged at heart strings and was warm and touching. He smiled through the game; his strength and heroism were an inspiration to all who watched.

When told about the disease affecting a lot of footballers, Borgonovo replied, ''I love soccer too much to believe this is a football disease," refusing to believe that the one thing he loved the most could kill him.

To raise funds and awareness of the disease, a testimonial match was organized by Borgonovo's former clubs Fiorentina and Milan. The game,called "Everyone for Stefano" was  played on 8 October 2008 at

At the conclusion of the match, Stefano Borgonovo had a message for every one of the individuals in his situation. “I wanted to say to those who suffer from what I suffer, believe in yourself, believe in football, and believe in the players and the football leagues that will help to find a cure for our illness.”

Investigation is still going on regarding the spread of this disease among Italian soccer players. So far more than 40 Italian ex-football players have been victims of ALS. One theory suggests the link of pesticides on the stadium grass, but so far nothing has been confirmed....

Red Wine fights Alzheimer's - Latest study !

An organic compound found in red wine -- resveratrol -- has the ability to neutralize the toxic effects of proteins linked to Alzheimer's disease, according to research led by Rensselaer Professor Peter M. Tessier. The findings, published in the May 28 edition of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, are a step toward understanding the large-scale death of brain cells seen in certain neurodegenerative diseases.

"We've shown how resveratrol has very interesting selectivity to target and neutralize a select set of toxic peptide isoforms," Tessier said. "Because resveratrol picks out the clumps of peptides that are bad and leaves alone the ones that are benign, it helps us to think about the structural differences between the peptide isoforms."
Isoforms are different packing arrangements of a particular peptide. Deformations of a particular peptide -- the Aβ1-42 peptide -- have been linked to Alzheimer's disease. Improperly folded peptides have been shown to collect in accumulations called "plaques" within the brain. Those plaques are often found near areas of cell death in diseased brains.
It is not clear that resveratrol is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, Tessier said. However, the molecule has garnered interest in recent years for its potential impact on cancer and aging.
In their research, Tessier and his co-authors generated Aβ peptides packed together in five unique isoforms, or "arrangements" (monomer, soluble oligomer, non-toxic oligomer, fibrillar intermediates and amyloid fibrils). In their experiments, three of these arrangements were toxic to human cells, two were not.
Next, the researchers introduced resveratrol.
The resveratrol reacted with the toxic arrangements of the Aβ1-42 peptide, neutralizing their toxicity.
It did not affect the non-toxic arrangements.
"The surprise is that this molecule can target some of these packing arrangements that are toxic and rearrange them into packing arrangements that are not toxic. For those forms that are non-toxic, it doesn't change them," Tessier said.
Intriguingly, Tessier said, one of the toxic arrangements (the soluble oligomer) and one of the non-toxic arrangements (the non-toxic oligomer) were indistinguishable by various methods. And yet the resveratrol only affected the toxic arrangement.
The point, Tessier concludes, is that the seemingly identical non-toxic and toxic arrangements must have some distinguishing feature yet to be discovered, raising questions for future study.
"We have two things that look very similar, but one is toxic and the other isn't," Tessier said. "What is it that makes the bad one bad and the good one good?"
The research produced several other findings, Tessier said, including reliable methods of generating the arrangements Tessier's team produced, and formation of one arrangement which had previously been unknown.

Monday, June 28, 2010

JOKE


A man goes to the doctor and says to the doctor:
 "It hurts when I press here" (pressing his side)
 "And when I press here" (pressing the other side)
"And here" (his leg) "And here, here and here" (his other leg, and both arms) So the doctor examined him all over and finally discovered what was wrong... "You've got a broken finger!"

Sunday, June 27, 2010

ANSWER

ADD CHEMISTRY TO COOKING...


"Cooking is chemistry," said Corriher. "It's essentially chemical reactions."


A biochemist and cook explains that cooking is all about chemistry and knowing some facts can help chefs understand why recipes go wrong. Because cooking is essentially a series of chemical reactions, it is helpful to know some basics. For example, plunging asparagus into boiling water causes the cells to pop and result in a brighter green. Longer cooking, however, causes the plant's cell walls to shrink and releases an acid. This turns the asparagus an unappetizing shade of grey.


This kind of chemistry happens when you put chopped red cabbage into a hot pan. Heat breaks down the red anthocyanine pigment, changing it from an acid to alkaline and causing the color change. Add some vinegar to increase the acidity, and the cabbage is red again. Baking soda will change it back to blue.

And that pretty fruit bowl on your counter? "Literally, overnight you can go from [a] nice green banana to an overripe banana," Corriher said.

The culprit here is ethylene gas. Given off by apples and even the bananas themselves, it can ruin your perfect fruit bowl -- but put an apple in a paper bag with an unripe avocado, and ethylene gas will work for you overnight

Try to use this chemistry to add chemistry to ur cooking!!!!

Thursday, June 24, 2010

GUESS ???

joke

The poor Jewish tailor is beside himself with worry. His wife is very ill and he wants the best doctor in town to treat her. But the doctor is somewhat reluctant because the tailor is so poor and, it being unlikely that his wife could be saved, the tailor might not pay him should his wife die. However, the tailor promises he will pay anything, no matter whether the doctor cures his wife or kills her !

This is sufficient for the doctor and he agrees.

Unfortunately, the doctor cannot save her and the tailors wife dies.

However, when the doctors bill arrives the tailor refuses to pay it despite his promise. After much argument, the doctor and the tailor agree to let the Rabbi decide the case since they both are, after all, Jewish.

The doctor puts his case to the Rabbi that the tailor promised to pay “no matter whether the doctor cured his wife or killed her”.
After much thought the Rabbi asks the doctor, “Did you cure her?” “No” admitted the doctor.
“And did you kill her?” “I certainly did not,” expostulated the doctor.

“In that case,” said the Rabbi, “the tailor has no case to answer because you fulfilled neither of the conditions on which you agreed that the fee should be paid.”

BOB MARLEY !!!!

Marley was born in Jamaica on 6 February 1945, the son of a British Army officer and a Jamaican woman.
His father left Bob's mother when Bob was still very young and Marley accompanied his mother to the capital, Kingston, in her search for work.
That exposed him to the music that would influence him and he joined music classes run by the famous Joe Higgs.
Marley, like many other young Jamaicans, saw music as a possible escape from the daily harshness of his life.
He formed various groups of musicians made up friends and family members. 
Along with Peter Tosh, Bunny Livingston, and a few others, Marley went on to form the Wailers in 1964. By the '70s, the group was an international success.
The first indication that something was amiss with Marley's health came in May of 1977. While on tour in France, Marley re-injured a right toe during a soccer game. The injury refused to heal and instead quickly worsened -- the entire nail came off and doctors recommended amputation. Citing religious beliefs, a limping Marley refused the surgery and gamely continued on tour. Later that summer, Marley finally allowed an orthopedic surgeon to perform a skin graft on the toe, and the procedure was deemed "a success."
In September of 1980, a weakened Marley almost fainted onstage while performing in New York. The next day, he collapsed while jogging in Central Park. Marley was diagnosed with a brain tumor (a result of the untreated cancer in his toe) and given less than a month to live. Despite the grim news, Marley played one final show in Pittsburgh before being flown to Miami. There doctors verified that the singer had cancer in the brain, lung, and stomach.
Marley travelled to Germany for controversial cancer treatment, but it proved unsuccessful and he wanted to travel home to die in Jamaica.
He never made it, on 11 May 1981 Bob Marley died of a cancerous brain tumour in a Miami hospital.,and his body was flown back from Miami to Jamaica where he was posthumously awarded Jamaica's Order of Merit.
 

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Coffee protects against Head and Neck Cancer , Prostate Cancer and Brain Cancer

Data on the effects of coffee on cancer risk have been mixed. However, results of a recent study add to the brewing evidence that drinking coffee protects against cancer, this time against head and neck cancer.


Full study results are published online first in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
Using information from a pooled-analysis of nine studies collected by the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, participants who were regular coffee drinkers, that is, those who drank an estimated four or more cups a day, compared with those who were non-drinkers, had a 39 percent decreased risk of oral cavity and pharynx cancers combined.
Data on decaffeinated coffee was too sparse for detailed analysis, but indicated no increased risk. Tea intake was not associated with head and neck cancer risk.
The association is more reliable among those who are frequent, regular coffee drinkers, consuming more than four cups of coffee a day.
"Since coffee is so widely used and there is a relatively high incidence and low survival rate of these forms of cancers, our results have important public health implications that need to be further addressed," said lead researcher Mia Hashibe, Ph.D., assistant professor in the department of family and preventive medicine at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and a Huntsman Cancer Institute investigator.

Brain Signs of Schizophrenia Found in Babies

Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder affecting one in 100 people worldwide. Most cases aren't detected until a person starts experiencing symptoms like delusions and hallucinations as a teenager or adult. By that time, the disease has often progressed so far that it can be difficult to treat.



In a paper published recently online by the American Journal of Psychiatry, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Columbia University provide the first evidence that brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia risk are detectable in babies only a few weeks old.



Tuesday, June 22, 2010

CLINICAL PROCEDURE VIDEO - FREE DOWNLOAD - ABSCESS DRAINAGE

A video showing incision and drainage of abscess

DOWNLOAD

joke

Doctors were told to contribute to the construction of a new wing at the hospital. What did they do?

The allergists voted to scratch it.

The dermatologists preferred no rash moves.

The gastroenterologists had a gut feeling about it.
The neurologists thought the administration had a lot of nerve.


The obstetricians stated they were laboring under a misconception.
The ophthalmologists considered the idea short-sighted.


The orthopedists issued a joint resolution.

The pathologists yelled, “over my dead body!”


The pediatricians said, “grow up.”
The proctologists said, “we are in arrears.”


The psychiatrists thought it was madness.


The surgeons decided to wash their hands of the whole thing.
The radiologists could see right through it.
The internists thought it was a hard pill to swallow.
The plastic surgeons said, “this puts a whole new face on the matter.”
The podiatrists thought it was a big step forward.
The urologists felt the scheme wouldn’t hold water.
The cardiologists didn’t have the heart to say no.

NOBY - Baby robot to shed light on human learning !!!

Japanese researchers have created a baby robot designed to simulate the behaviour and development of a real infant in an effort to better understand how humans grow up.

Named Noby, short for “nine-month-old baby”, it has 600 sensors across its body to feel touch, cameras and microphones fitted into its head for vision and hearing, and is hooked up to a powerful computer.

Noby is 71 centimetres tall and weighs 7.9 kilograms, similar to a nine-month-old human. It has soft urethane skin, is flexible and has joints that move like those of a human baby.

Researchers are using it to test theories of human development, said Tokyo University professor Yasuo Kuniyoshi, who led development of Noby. “You can load your software into the robot, watch how it reacts to human actions and its surroundings, and compare it with the behaviour of real children,” said Kuniyoshi.

Noby is one of the humanoids created under a broader project headed by Minoru Asada, robotics engineering professor at Osaka University, and funded by the government-backed Japan Science and Technology Agency.

The team is adopting a new approach to getting to know humans by replicating them, JST said in a statement.

“Human beings learn and develop various functions in the process of growing up, but the exact mechanism is yet to be explained,” it said.

Shedding light on the field will help develop robots that could live together with humans in the future, it said.

The project team has also unveiled a humanoid the size of a five-year-old, the M3-Kindy. The M3 stands for “man-made man,” and Kindy for kindergarten. M3-Kindy can walk hand-in-hand with a human.

Noby and M3-Kindy are the latest additions to humanoids created in the project, which also includes the M3-Neony.

M3-Neony mimics a new-born baby, and was unveiled earlier this year

WASIM AKRAM - TYPE 1 DIABETIC!!!


Wasim Akram, described as the Prince of Pakistan, his skill with a cricket ball defied the laws of physics he has left an indelible mark as a supreme all-rounder and the best one-day international player in history.

Wasim was 30 when he was diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes.

“I remember what a shock it was because I was a healthy sportsman with no history of diabetes in my family whatsoever, so I didn’t expect it at all,” he recalls. “It seemed strange that it happened to me when I was 30, but it was a very stressful time and doctors said that can trigger it.”
"I lost about seven, eight kilograms in two or three months.I was drinking a lot of water, sleeping all the time, and I played the whole West Indies series in the same condition. And I thought, "I'm training, that's why I'm losing so much weight." But in the end, my father literally grabbed me and took me to the doctor and then he found my sugar level was very, very high."

“I felt down at first but my wife, who qualified as a psychiatrist at UCL, helped me come to terms with it. I would advise anyone with diabetes to think positive – adjust your lifestyle to fight it. Keeping fit and eating a very balanced diet have been crucial to keeping it under control and allowing me to continue playing. If you have control of your body, you're in control of diabetes. It's important that you check blood sugar levels before meals and go for regular check-ups.”


The six years he played cricket after being diagnosed a diabetic were some of the best cricketing years of his life. But he had to observe a strict regimen, particularly on match days, before batting or fielding, he'd make sure he had taken his insulin shot, and always kept a chocolate at hand, in case his sugar level fell below normal.

After the diagnosis he has taken active part in spreading awareness of diabetes, and has been a great role  model for those who suffer from it.

Monday, June 21, 2010

Humans will be extinct within 100 years ????


LONDON: An Australian scientist, who helped eradicate smallpox from the world, has created a new sensation by predicting that the human race will be extinct within the next 100 years.


Professor Frank Fenner, emeritus professor of microbiology at the Australian National University, has claimed that the human race will be unable to survive a population explosion and "unbridled consumption".
"Homo sapiens will become extinct, perhaps within 100 years," Fenner said. "A lot of other animals will, too."

"It's an irreversible situation. I think it's too late. I try not to express that because people are trying to do something, but they keep putting it off."

Sunday, June 20, 2010

HAPPY FATHER'S DAY!!!

This post has nothing to do with Medicine...

Its a dedication to the man who has made me who i am..
To the one who gave me wings to fly, who thought me to dream big n have the courage to make my dreams come true...
The one who thought me to love, to laugh, to live life to the fullest.. 

To the WORLD'S GREATEST DAD !!!


I would ride on your shoulders

And look out on the world
Pretending I was big and tall like you
When you were there to hold me
I never was afraid
You made me feel there's nothing I can't do

If I'd spread my wings to fly
When I was very small
I knew that you'd be standing by
To catch me if I fall                                                        CLICK HERE

You're my hero
Chasing the monsters from my room
Going on trips around the moon
The one who's always been there faithfully
You're my hero

And 'cause you're my Dad...
I'm twice as blessed and lucky to be me

As I kept on growing
We often disagreed
But you let me find myself in my own way
And it's funny, how just lately
I've come to recognize

How wise you are becoming every day
There's so much you've given me

I hope I've made you proud
You're everything a Dad should be

And it's time to tell you now

You're my hero
You didn't have to say a word
Your love was the message that I heard
Inspiring me to be all I can be

You're my hero

And 'cause you're my Dad...
I'm twice as blessed and lucky to be me

HAPPY FATHER'S DAY!!

Friday, June 18, 2010

JOKE

Patient: Doctor, I have a serious memory problem. I can't remember



anything!


Doctor: So, since when did you have this problem?


Patient: What problem?

CLINICAL PROCEDURE - FREE DOWNLOAD - CHEST TUBE INSERTION

Nice video showing chest tube insertion



DOWNLOAD

EARVIN 'MAGIC' JOHNSON AND AIDS !!!!

'MAGIC' Johnson is a retired NBA Basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers. Before joining the NBA, the 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m) point guard enjoyed success in NCAA College Basketball , winning the title in 1979 with the Michigan State. With the Lakers, Johnson established a successful career as he won five NBA championships, played in nine NBA Finals series, and was elected three times for both Finals MVP and Regular Season MVP . Johnson also played in 12 All-Star games and was voted into 10 First and Second Teams, and led the league in regular season assists four times.

Johnson is acknowledged as one of the most popular NBA basketball players of all time, being well-known for his uncanny passing and dribbling skills, and for his cheerful nature on and off the court. His fierce, but friendly rivalry with Larry Bird rejuvenated the NBA and ushered in the era of million-dollar salaries. He was also a member of the Dream Team U. S. basketball team which won the Olympic gold medal in 1992. For his feats, Johnson was honored as one of the NBA 50 Greatest Players in 1996 and enshrined in the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2002.

Johnson is also well-known for contracting HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus), which he made public in 1991, and which caused him to temporarily retire. After winning over the support of his colleagues, he became the first openly HIV-positive player to play in the NBA.

Recalling the events in an interview with USA TODAY, Johnson says team doctor Michael Mellman had summoned him back to Los Angeles without disclosing the reason for the call.

When Johnson arrived in Mellman's office, he got the shock of his life. "He begins to tell me, you know, I have HIV," Johnson says. "I never, ever thought that was what he was calling me back for."

Johnson had been tested as part of a routine examination for a life insurance policy.
He says the next two hours were among the toughest of his life. He worried about his wife, Cookie Kelly, who was two months pregnant, and Mellman couldn't offer much reassurance.

"As I got home," Johnson says, "I was just hoping and praying that she would stay with me. I think that was the main thing. ... As I told her I was HIV-positive she, of course, began to cry and asked me what that meant for (her) and the baby, which I couldn't tell her. But I told her I would understand if she wanted to leave me. You know, right at that time, she hit me so hard upside my head. And then she said, 'Hey, we're going to beat this together.' "

Five days later, Cookie's HIV test came back negative, Johnson says. "Then I started my own journey."

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Gout drug - ALLOPURINOL - Relieves CHEST PAIN !!!


Allopurinol has been available for the last 40 years to treat gout

A drug commonly used to treat gout can also relieve angina, researchers say.
Allopurinol is inexpensive compared with some other angina drugs and appears to work by reducing the energy needs of the heart, the Lancet reports.
The severe chest pain of angina occurs when the heart muscle is deprived of blood - and therefore oxygen.
The Dundee University study involving 65 angina patients found those on allopurinol could exercise for longer without getting chest pain.
Common problem Angina affects about two million people in the UK and is the most common symptom of heart disease. It substantially reduces quality of life, with one in three patients with chronic stable angina having an angina "attack" at least once a week.
Effective treatments already exist, but for some patients they may not work and for others they can be too expensive.

CLINICAL PROCEDURE - REE DOWNLOAD - BASIC SPLINTING TECHNIQUES

As requested by a very avid follower of mediworld rkr!!!!

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen - Man behind X Rays

Röntgen's name, is chiefly associated with his discovery of the rays that he called X-rays. In 1895 he was studying the phenomena accompanying the passage of an electric current through a gas of extremely low pressure.

On the evening of November 8, 1895, he found that, if the discharge tube is enclosed in a sealed, thick black carton to exclude all light, and if he worked in a dark room, a paper plate covered on one side with barium platinocyanide placed in the path of the rays became fluorescent even when it was as far as two metres from the discharge tube. During subsequent experiments he found that objects of different thicknesses interposed in the path of the rays showed variable transparency to them when recorded on a photographic plate. When he immobilised for some moments the hand of his wife in the path of the rays over a photographic plate, he observed after development of the plate an image of his wife's hand which showed the shadows thrown by the bones of her hand and that of a ring she was wearing, surrounded by the penumbra of the flesh, which was more permeable to the rays and therefore threw a fainter shadow. This was the first "röntgenogram" ever taken. In further experiments, Röntgen showed that the new rays are produced by the impact of cathode rays on a material object. Because their nature was then unknown, he gave them the name X-rays. Later, Max von Laue and his pupils showed that they are of the same electromagnetic nature as light, but differ from it only in the higher frequency of their vibration.

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was born on March 27, 1845, at Lennep in the Lower Rhine Province of Germany, as the only child of a merchant in, and manufacturer of, cloth. His mother was Charlotte Constanze Frowein of Amsterdam, a member of an old Lennep family which had settled in Amsterdam.

When he was three years old, his family moved to Apeldoorn in The Netherlands, where he went to the Institute of Martinus Herman van Doorn, a boarding school. He did not show any special aptitude, but showed a love of nature and was fond of roaming in the open country and forests. He was especially apt at making mechanical contrivances, a characteristic which remained with him also in later life. In 1862 he entered a technical school at Utrecht, where he was however unfairly expelled, accused of having produced a caricature of one of the teachers, which was in fact done by someone else.

He then entered the University of Utrecht in 1865 to study physics. Not having attained the credentials required for a regular student, and hearing that he could enter the Polytechnic at Zurich by passing its examination, he passed this and began studies there as a student of mechanical engineering. He attended the lectures given by Clausius and also worked in the laboratory of Kundt. Both Kundt and Clausius exerted great influence on his development. In 1869 he graduated Ph.D. at the University of Zurich, was appointed assistant to Kundt and went with him to Würzburg in the same year, and three years later to Strasbourg.

For his discovery of X Rays,numerous honours were showered upon him. In several cities, streets were named after him, and a complete list of Prizes, Medals, honorary doctorates, honorary and corresponding memberships of learned societies in Germany as well as abroad.
In spite of all this, Röntgen retained the characteristic of a strikingly modest and reticent man. Throughout his life he retained his love of nature and outdoor occupations.

Röntgen died at Munich on February 10, 1923, from carcinoma of the intestine.

JOKE

A new doctor had arrived in town. He could cure anything and anybody. Everyone was amazed with what he could do - everyone except for Mr. Thompson, the town skeptic.


Grumpy old Mr. Thompson went to visit this 'miracle doctor' to prove that he wasn't anybody special. When it was time for his appointment he told the doctor, "Hey, doc, I've lost my sense of taste. I can't taste nothin', so what are ya goin' to do?"

The doctor scratched his head and mumbled to himself a little, then told Mr. Thompson, "What you need is jar number 47."


So the doctor brought the jar out, opened it, and told Mr. Thompson to taste it. He tasted it and immediately spit it out, "This is gross!" he yelled. "Looks like I just restored your sense of taste Mr. Thompson," said the doctor. So Mr. Thompson went home.... very mad.


One month later, Mr. Thompson decides to go back to the doctor and try once again to expose him as a fake, by complaining of a new problem. "Doc," he started, "I can't remember anything!" Thinking he had the doctor stumped now, he waited as the doctor scratched his head, mumbled to himself a little, and told Mr. Thompson, "What you need is jar number 47, it's......"

But before the doctor could finish his sentence, Mr. Thompson was cured and fled the room!

A REALLY NICE SURGERY SITE

A VERY VERY NICE AND INFORMATIVE SITE - ALL ABOUT SURGERY !!!


LINK

MALE MENOPAUSE AND TESTOSTERONE REPLACEMENT ????


Scientists have for the first time identified the symptoms associated with what has been termed late-onset hypogonadism or 'male menopause' caused by a reduction in testosterone production in aging men.

But the researchers say that unlike the female menopause, which affects all women, the male menopause is relatively rare, affecting only 2% of elderly men, and is often linked to poor general health and obesity.


The findings, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, should provide new guidance to physicians prescribing male testosterone therapy, a practice that has increased by 400% in the United States, though not elsewhere, since 1999.

The University of Manchester researchers, working with colleagues at Imperial College London, UCL (University College London) and other European partners, measured the testosterone levels of 3,369 men between the ages of 40 and 79 years from eight European centres and asked details about their sexual, physical and psychological health.

The team found that only nine of the 32 candidate symptoms were actually associated with low testosterone levels, the most important being the three sexual symptoms -- decreased frequency of morning erection, decreased frequency of sexual thoughts (sex drive), and erectile dysfunction.

The study concluded that the presence of all three sexual symptoms, together with low testosterone levels, was required to establish a diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism, although other non-sexual symptoms may also be present.

These other symptoms included three physical symptoms -- an inability to engage in vigorous activity, such as running or lifting heavy objects, an inability to walk more than 1km, and an inability to bend, kneel or stoop -- and three psychological symptoms -- loss of energy, sadness, and fatigue. However, these non-sexual symptoms were only weakly related to low testosterone.
Additional symptoms often said to be associated with the male menopause but which the study was able to discount as not being testosterone related included changes in sleeping pattern, poor concentration, feeling worthless, nervousness or anxiety and difficulty getting up from a chair.

JOKE

Dear Sirs,


I am writing in response to your request for additional information. In block number 3 in the Accident Report Form I put "Lost Presence-of-Mind" as the cause of my accident. You asked in your letter that I should explain more fully, and I trust the following details will be sufficient....
I am a bricklayer, by trade. On the day of the accident I was working alone on the roof of a new 6 story building. When I completed my work, I discovered I had about 500 pounds of bricks left over. Rather than carry them down by hand, I decided to lower them down in a barrel, using a pulley, which fortunately was attached to the building at the 6th floor.

Securing the rope at ground level, I went up to the roof, swung the barrel out, and loaded the bricks into it. Then I went to the ground floor, untied the rope, holding it tightly to ensure a slow decent of the 500 pounds of bricks. You will note in block number 3 of the Accident Reporting Form, that I weigh 145 pounds.

The Roman Emperor - Gaius Julius Cæsar

Gaius Julius Cæsar is a Roman military and political leader. He had four documented episodes of what were probably complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures  in his youth. There is family history of epilepsy amongst his ancestors and descendants. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar's death.

Replacing White Rice With Brown Rice or Other Whole Grains May Reduce Diabetes Risk

In a new study, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have found that eating five or more servings of white rice per week was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, eating two or more servings of brown rice per week was associated with a lower risk of the disease.

The researchers estimated that replacing 50 grams of white rice (just one third of a typical daily serving) with the same amount of brown rice would lower risk of type 2 diabetes by 16%. The same replacement with other whole grains, such as whole wheat and barley, was associated with a 36% reduced risk.
The study is the first to specifically examine white rice and brown rice in relation to diabetes risk among Americans, said Qi Sun, who did the research while at HSPH and is now an instructor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. "Rice consumption in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent decades. We believe replacing white rice and other refined grains with whole grains, including brown rice, would help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes," said Sun.
The study appears online June 14, 2010, on the website of the journal Archives of Internal Medicine. Brown rice is superior to white rice when it comes to fiber content, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals, and it often does not generate as large an increase in blood sugar levels after a meal. Milling and polishing brown rice removes most vitamins and minerals. In addition, milling strips away most of its fiber, which helps deter diabetes by slowing the rush of sugar (glucose) into the bloodstream.

Monday, June 14, 2010

hospital relationships !!

In a hospital as an intern, you tend to spend a lot of time with your patients, and interesting relationships develop that probably won’t be understood by many..


Probably one such patient who Il never forget, is Mr.X..

One day after finishing a busy Surgery OPD, I headed to the private ward, to find Mr.X admitted with a large insicional Hernia. No one had any idea who admitted him as his surgery was not scheduled for next 20 days. As our Head Of Department(surgery)  wasn’t in town and none of us were sure about what to do and since he was a private patient, which meant no one was willing to upset him and end up facing the music from the management, we decided to make him as comfortable as possible and do routinue pre operative workup.

“Ok you, work up the patient, you have to present the case to sir tomorrow”, the final words my PG uttered as he left the ward.

I looked at the big ward clock, 11 PM, probably not the best time to disturb a patient but my other choice was 5 AM which din’t seem any better..

With a huge sigh, I got up from the nurse’s desk and headed to the patient’s room, he was sound asleep, which after almost a year of internship was no longer a deterrent, I put on my, im the busy doctor expression, and knocked the door, rather loudly twice, before entering.

Mr.X stirred sleepily while his bystander got up rather hurriedly and greeted me. For a millisecond I felt bad about my insensitivity at waking up a patient when it wasn’t at all necessary medically, the thought of leaving the room entered my head for a very very brief moment but it was almost instantaneously replaced by other frivolous thoughts like pending discharge summaries.

After convincing myself that my patient was awake enough to answer me, I started to elicit the history of his ailment. I usually prided myself on taking elaborate histories but today I wasn’t really up to it.. I just wanted to finish the work, go back and hit the bed, but my patient had other plans. Now that he was finally awake, he seemed to find it a rather good time to chat, and wanted to talk about everything under the sun expect his medical problem ..

As I half paid attention to him, while battling the irresistible urge to shut my eyes and my mind wondered about how the private room mattresses are nice and springy, I realized the futility of this attempt.. After 15 mins the only relevant information I had was his name, occupation, and I also had had a quick update on all the newsworthy events in the world.
I left the room with a polite goodnight to enjoy my 4 hours of sleep.

The next day wasn’t much better off, with Mr.X veering off the topic every 2 seconds, but somehow with great difficulty I managed to elicit the required information.. I managed to present the case, not the best iv presented but considering the circumstances, it was ok..

Since Mr.X had some insurance issues, we decided to prepone his surgery and keep him admitted till then. This meant that over the next 15 days I visited his room atleast 7 – 8 times daily, and with each passing visit I got increasingly irritated with him… don’t get me wrong, he was a nice old man, although he may have been suffering from hypomania as one of our medical students diagnosed after her brief conversation with him, but my main concern was the 30 – 45 min extra that I had to spend each visit which I could have used to do a million better things…
This cycle continued of me trying to politely escape from the room while he continued to chat upon every issue ranging from American politics to his daughter’s marriage to marine geography in the same breath, till that one fateful day…

I had been on call for 4 continuous days and was now suffering from what I can only call somnambulism (sleep walking), and after answering my bleep for the umpteenth time I decided to get a head start on the day and do my morning rounds at 4 AM, yes, ur right, in my zombie state I totally forgot that my patients are still human and may be asleep..

So I headed to the ward and started to check my patients, when I reached Mr.X’s room it was around 4.30.. I entered the room, Mr. X was awake and he smiled broadly at me, I smiled back while all the time thinking at the back of my mind, how long is this going to take.. “you are up early” said Mr.X , “ Im on call so I din’t actually sleep Sir” I replied , “ ur on call again, u have been on call the whole week now, right ?” asked Mr.X , I was too surprised to answer, I never knew patients actually followed duty rosters of their doctor… I silently nodded my head, learnt some new information on football, finished checking vitals and dressing and left the room.

The following day was grand rounds, our entire team entered Mr.X’s room, he greeted us all brightly and then to my greatest surprise decided that his topic of discussion today would be ME.. He started by telling my unit head about how polite I was, how nicely I spoke to him, and efficiently did my work, and finished with praising me for doing such long hours without complaining.. With every word he spoke I felt more and more guilty, till by the time he finished I was drowning in a big pool of guilt…

He continued to speak about how doctors were doing the best possible work in the world cause what they did was not just a job, how they were God’s gift to mankind, and how much he appreciated them.

As I heard him speak, I felt all the love I had for medicine return, I was reminded that these were the reasons I took medicine in the first place, to help people, and it din’t matter how tired I was or how long my patient spoke unnecessary things, it was part of who I was to listen and serve...

Mr.X continued to stay for another 10 days and during this time he continued to chat incessantly each day I visited him, he shared with me many wonderful experiences and knowledge that he had gained with age, and this time I listened.. :) :) 

SPHYGMOMANOMETER - B.P. APPARATUS

The sphygmograph ,was a mechanical device used to measure blood pressure in the mid-19th century. It was developed in 1854 by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt (1818-1884). It is considered the first external, non-intrusive device used to estimate blood pressure.


The device was a system of levers hooked to a scale-pan in which weights were placed to determine the amount of external pressure needed to stop blood flow in the radial artery. Although the instrument was cumbersome and its measurements imprecise, the basic concept of Vierordt's sphygmograph eventually led to the blood pressure cuff that's used today.

In 1863, Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904), improved the device by making it portable. Also he used an instrument applied above the radial artery which was able to magnify pulse waves and record them on paper with an attached pen.

In 1880 Samuel von Basch (1837-1905) invented the sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer was then improved by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1937) in the 1890s. In 1901 Harvey Williams Cushing improved it further, and Heinrich von Recklinghausen (1867-1942) used a wider cuff, and so it became the first accurate and practical instrument for measuring blood pressure.

JOKE

One day in the hospital, two little boys were lying on stretchers next to each other outside of the operating room. The first boy leans over and asks, "What are you in for?"



"I'm here to get my tonsils out and I'm nervous," the second boy says.

The first kid says, "You've got nothing to worry about! I had that done when I was four. They put you to sleep and when you wake up they give you lots of ice cream and Jell-O. It's a breeze!"

"Well what are you here for?" the second kid asks.

"A circumcision." The first kid replys woefully.

The second kid says "Wow! I had that done when I was born and I couldn't walk for a year!"

Modifiable lifestyle factors influence breast cancer!!!

Women's risk of developing breast cancer due to common genetic differences is not affected by lifestyle factors such as weight, diet, alcohol, hormone replacement therapy  (HRT), having children and breastfeeding, concluded UK researchers.

The study, led by a team at the University of Oxford, is published 2 June as an early online publication in the The Lancet.

Lead author Dr Ruth Travis, an epidemiologist who specializes in investigating the genetic, hormonal and lifestyle determinants of cancer , told the press that we know lifestyle and genetic factors affect breast cancer risk, but this research shows that lifestyle factors do not influence the genetic risks, their influence is independent of one another:

"We looked at whether lifestyle factors for breast cancer, such as use of HRT, alcohol consumption and reproductive history, influence the genetic risks: and the answer is that they do not," said Travis, according to a Reuters report.

Travis and colleagues found that for most women, modifiable lifestyle factors influence breast cancer risk more than inherited genes.

Co-author Dr Jane Green, also an epidemiologist at Oxford with interests in how environment affects cancer risk, said:

"Genes account for only a small proportion of breast cancers, and for most women the main risk factors remain the lifestyle factors such as child bearing, use of HRT, obesity and alcohol consumption."

She said the good news is that some of these lifestyle factors are modifiable, so women can change their risk of breast cancer by changing their behaviour.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

ITS BETTER TO SLEEP LESS !!!


Long sleep duration is associated with an elevated prevalence of metabolic syndrome in older adults, according to a research abstract presented June 8, 2010, in San Antonio, Texas, at SLEEP 2010, the 24th annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC.

 Results indicate that participants who reported a habitual daily sleep duration of eight hours or more including naps were 15 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome (odds ratio = 1.15). This relationship remained unchanged after full adjustment for potential confounders such as demographics, lifestyle and sleep habits, and metabolic markers. Removing participants with potential ill health from the analysis slightly attenuated the observed association (OR = 1.13). Although participants who reported a short sleep duration of less than six hours were 14 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome in the initial analysis(OR = 1.14), this association disappeared after controlling for potential confounders (OR = 0.98).
"The most surprising aspect of our study was that long sleep -- and not short sleep -- was related to the presence of the metabolic syndrome," said lead author Teresa Arora, research scientist at the University of Birmingham School of Medicine in Birmingham, U.K.

CLINICAL PROCEDURE VIDEO - FREE DOWNLOAD - CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETHERIZATION

video showing central venous catheterization of SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

DOWNLOAD HERE

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING SCAN- MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging or scanning (also called an MRI) is a method of looking inside the body without using surgery, harmful dyes or x-rays. The MRI scanner uses magnetism and radio waves to produce clear pictures of the human anatomy.

MRI is based on nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR, in which magnetic fields and radio waves cause atoms to give off tiny radio signals.

In 1970, Raymond Damadian, a medical doctor and research scientist, discovered the basis for using magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for medical diagnosis. He found that different kinds of animal tissue emit response signals that vary in length, and that cancerous tissue emits response signals that last much longer than non cancerous tissue.

Less than two years later he filed his idea for using magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for medical diagnosis with the U.S. Patent Office, entitled "Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue." A patent was granted in 1974, it was the world's first patent issued in the field of MRI. By 1977, Dr. Damadian completed construction of the first whole-body MRI scanner, which he dubbed the "Indomitable."

His invention was able to locate cancerous tissue without producing an image. His method was later replaced with other methods, because it was not reliable and effective enough. Therefore, in 2003 the Nobel Prize for MRI with pictures was awarded to Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield

JOKE

Jerry is recovering from day surgery when a nurse asks him how he is feeling.


"I'm ok but I didn't like the four-letter-word the doctor used in surgery," he answered.

"What did he say," asked the nurse.


"OOPS"

Friday, June 11, 2010

New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes

Scientists are reporting new evidence that drinking coffee may help prevent diabetes and that caffeine may be the ingredient largely responsible for this effect. Their findings, among the first animal studies to demonstrate this apparent link, appear in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.


Fumihiko Horio and colleagues note that past studies have suggested that regular coffee drinking may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The disease affects millions in the United States and is on the rise worldwide. However, little of that evidence comes from studies on lab animals used to do research that cannot be done in humans.
The scientists fed either water or coffee to a group of laboratory mice commonly used to study diabetes. Coffee consumption prevented the development of high-blood sugar and also improved insulin sensitivity in the mice, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes. Coffee also caused a cascade of other beneficial changes in the fatty liver and inflammatory adipocytokines related to a reduced diabetes risk. Additional lab studies showed that caffeine may be "one of the most effective anti-diabetic compounds in coffee," the scientists say.

JOKE


Five surgeons were taking a coffee break and were discussing their work.




The first said, "I think accountants are the easiest to operate on. You open them up and everything inside is numbered."


The second said, "I think librarians are the easiest to operate on. You open them up and everything inside is in alphabetical order."


The third said, "I like to operate on electricians. You open them up and everything inside is color-coded."


The fourth one said, "I like to operate on lawyers. They're heartless spineless, gutless, and their heads and their tails are interchangeable."


The fifth surgeon says "I like engineers . They always understand when you have a few parts left over at the end."